5This equation assumes that there are no shocks to permanent income. A large literature finds that, in reality, permanent (or at least extremely highly persistent) shocks exist and are quite large; such shocks therefore need to be incorporated into any ‘serious’ model (that is, one that hopes to match and explain empirical data), but the treatment of permanent shocks clutters the exposition without adding much to the intuition, so permanent shocks are omitted from the analysis until the last section of the notes, which shows how to match the model with empirical micro data. For a full treatment of the theory including permanent shocks, see Carroll (2011).